Teachers, students, good morning. I am the vice director of Psychology Club, Chen Shuo, from Class 7, senior Grade 2. Today, let’s talk about “study” from an psychological experiment.
In 1948, psychologist Skinner and his colleagues made a special box, this closed box had an opening, from which food distributor sent out a certain amount of food every interval, and disappeared a few seconds after. They put 8 hungry pigeons in the box and observed them, a weird thing happened – the pigeons repeated different actions: pecked the floor, head tilted, swirled… and so on. After careful analysis of the experiment records, Skinner discovered that the unreasonable actions done by the pigeons actually had its reason: what they repeated were the exact actions at a certain time when food distributor gave the food. What did it mean?
It meant, the hungry pigeons seemed to believed, their certain actions might bring them prizes, that was, food distribution. However, we know, the whole system had nothing to do with the pigeons actions. Skinner gave the experiment a name called “ superstitious pigeons”.
This is a very accurate description. I don’t know if you, who have taken to so many exams, have the similar experience: in some exam, you used a special pen, or a lucky eraser and got a good grades, after that you took it with you when you had an exam. As for the exam result, I think we all know. This is the same story as “ superstitious pigeons”. Psychologically, such behavior belongs to “ operation conditioned reaction”. Its basic theory is, we learn according to the result of a certain event. Once some behavior produces good results, we tend to repeat the behavior, if not, we stop it.
You probably have such experience --- in some monthly quiz, you didn’t do well, our energy was put on this subject in the rest of the month, more or less. In many cases, in the monthly quiz after, this subject might have a good result. If we analyze this with the theory of operation conditioned reaction, we can say, “ I didn’t do well in that subject in the quiz.” We will punish ourselves by stopping us from distracting from classes, copying others’ homework, etc. in other cases, we study this subject especially hard and get good grades, following it are both the material and spiritual prizes, which will motivate us to study the subject even harder and successfully enter into the virtuous cycle, our grades will be better and better.
So, in our daily study, you might as well ask for help from the teachers, classmates or friends, give yourselves appropriate prize or punishment to press yourselves to study harder. However, some related research shows that, in terms of encouragement, prizes seem more effective than punishment. Good grades generally come from the daily accumulation in study, since the way of learning is so long and hard, why not be nice to ourselves?
Maybe you will say that, the exam is approaching, what’s the point of talking about what we should do every day? First of all, after this exam, there is next, why don’t you apply operation conditioned reaction to your later study? Next, in this review, you can give yourself a little prize after you have finished a task, just to see if it has any effect.
The above are the tips in psychology for taking exams and how to apply them, I wish everyone gets good grades in the coming final. Thank you!
B: thank Expert Chen Shuo’s for his coming and his instructions. Undoubtedly, he told us that sending Koi fish is just a psychological comfort, the real thing is to study harder, so you will see the good result.
A: according to the survey by the related agency, most students feel great pressure in the preparations for the final, they can sit well, they can’t eat well, all these become the students’ obstacles to get high grades.
B: where is the anxiety before the exam from? How will the student deal with it? Behind all these, what scientific theory is hiding? Let’s welcome our special commentator, Gui Ye, from Class 3, senior Grade 1 and Tao Yiran, Class 1, senior Grade 1 to talk more about the related knowledge.
Psychological Counseling before the Exam
Tyr: hello, everyone, I am Yao Yiran from Class 1, senior Grade 1.
Gy: I am Gui Ye from Class 3, senior Grade 1.
Tyr: hey, Gui Ye, how is your preparation for the final?
Gy: reviewing? Hey, it’s just that way, I am going to give it a try. There is an old say, we do things with three parts of fighting, seven parts of moral quality.
Tyr: what do you mean? Moral quality? That’s correct adjustment of your attitude.
Gy: the mid-term, once a semester, comes as expected, I believe that everyone has made good preparations. Does it occur to you that you can’t eat well, or sleep well? then, how to make good applications to what you have learned or study hard to make good preparations for the exam and show what you have learned fully in the exam? It is important adjust your mentality positively.
Tyr: yes, oh, Gui Ye, you didn’t do well in the last exam, did you? I saw you full of worries at school recently. The teachers were looking for you one by one.
Gy: I didn’t do quite well, it’s a matter of learners, you don’t understand, it’s called strategic mistake.
Try: strategic mistake?
Gy: after the exam, I read about the exam keys.
Tyr: that is all your fault, before the exam, we need to exclude all negative influences. Those negative influences will interfere with our moods and make us very nervous. So, here, I’d like to say this to you, don’t spend a lot of time studying those key points that you are not familiar with lest you might have negative feeling before the exam. In fact, all these things should be well-prepared before your review. A short time before the exam, you’d better not make loud noises, run, argue or do things that might stimulate your mood, you shouldn’t even more read the exam keys between the exams of two subjects. Gui Ye, I heard that some students would get very nervous during the exam, they would keep looking at the clock, pay attention when others do the exam paper faster than they do. What do you suggest?
Gy: when you feel nervous, restless because of the inadequate time in an exam, you definitely can’t keep looking at the clock, by doing so you will feel tenser. Calm yourself down, forget about the time, focus on the exam paper. If your tense is caused by being unable to figure out the problems, you should quiet down, reconsider, or skip to ensure you can finish the whole exam paper smoothly. Don’t be intervened by one or two problems and then the whole thing is interfered. Mommy doesn’t worry about my study since I learned to give and take in an exam.
Tyr: then, what should we do when we become very nervous at the very beginning?
Gy: you need to pay more attention when you are always feeling nervous in the whole process of the exam, because in such a case, no matter how difficult or easy the problems are, you find it hard to calm yourself down and do it. Here, we’d like to give some tips to those who are going to have the exam about how to adjust your mentality.
Tyr: 1. Relax by breathing: in a state of tense in an exam, it is easy and feasible to take deep breath to relax the muscles and the nerve system. At such a moment, you’d better not read the exam paper, but perceive your breath, by breathing, you adjust your mood. Or you could stare at the ceiling for a moment, temporarily switching your focus and tense, do the paper after you have calm yourself down.
Gy: 2. Psychological hints: by psychological hints, you can relieve your continuous worries. For example, say to yourself:” don’t be discouraged, don’t worry, everything will be all right.” “eh, I did rather well on the whole, one problem can’t affect the whole thing.” “I can’t figure out this problem, others can’t, definitely. “or think about the past when you did well in, with your confidence, you can relieve your tense.
Tyr: 3. Concentration: when you are in an exam, too nervous, too uneasy to focus, there is a rapid, effective way to concentrate. You can temporarily pause answering the exam paper, make some observation to concentrate. For instance, you observe the pen in your hand, it’s shape, it’s color, or a bottler nearby. In this way, you can adjust your mood rapidly and concentrate on the exam.
Gy: oh, Tao Yiran, what if we feel sleepy during an exam, what shall we do when we find reading the exam paper is like reading Greek? Tyr: oh, I can infer that you are reading too much, take more rest before exam. Furthermore, one or two hours before the exam, close your eyes, take a break, or listen to light music to relieve your stress. It is helpful for you to bring into play to some degree.
Gy: I am sure that everyone is well-prepared to greet the coming mid-term. Working hard every day counts, if you work hard every day, make solid foundation, combine effective exam methods and good mentality, you will have satisfying grades in the exam.
Tyr: we wish everybody have good grades! Thank you!A: thank Gui Ye and Tao Yiran’s brilliant speech. With these good tips, I am sure we will be able to better deal with the worries and anxiety before the exam. But, there are more for us to conquer on the way to get higher grades.
A scientific study and preparation are important prerequisites.
A: besides the adjustment of mentality and strategic preparation for the exam, today, we are very lucky to invite a real top student to share experience in studying with us, let’s welcome Yu Yan to say something.
Hello, everyone, with the final approaching, though there are only two days left, two days can change a lot, actually. I am sure that a lot of us in high morale have made good review plan and practice it. But some of us stay up late just to achieve their goals. In my opinion, this is really unfeasible. Going to bed too late will exhaust your energy, getting up too late will destroy your will. The energy and the will are a kind of resource, overspending have more disadvantage than advantage. What we can do is to planning our time effectively. I recommend to rest and study, study art and science in rotation, the time to relax will better makes us gain energy to provide our will, and improve our effect in the study in the next stage. The effective method after so many years’ tests is tomato working method, I am sure many of you have heard about it, take a break every 25 minutes’ work, look at the distance, stretch yourself, reflect upon life, make yourself refreshed to do the next job.
Secondly, working on the same task for a long time will make our brain idle, and feel numb about it. So it is extra important to review the art subjects and science subject on rotation. Shifting between the art and the science will give us a fresh feeling facing tedious tasks, only when we have passion for the things we do, when we are interested in the things we do, will our efforts be meaningful. For science courses, we need to quiet down and think deeply, so the process of the review is naturally longer. As for the art courses, which are mainly about memorizing, we should use the pieces of time to do the memorizing, every time do a small amount of work, and do it frequently, you will find that you memorize those difficult points unconsciously. The review of the science courses depends on how you make use of the methods and how you categorize them, in this way, you make more examples, so you have multiple effects by just doing one problem. What needs to be noticed is that making use of methods and categorizing them should be done all by ourselves after consideration, instead of from reference books or others’ summary. When you first read others’ conclusions you might have inspiration a little bit, but it is not what you get all by yourself after all. Only the reasoning by yourself can be considered your own things. Only your own calculation is considered a real mastering of the knowledge. For art courses review, the structure should be attached importance to. A day before the exam, open the book to the contents, take a look at the titles of each unit, think about what content each unit contains, how the knowledge points are connected together like a net. If you discover there are some blind points, don’t be nervous, the most valuable and the most well-directed way to deal with it is to check what you missed and make up what you lacked, because the knowledge that you can’t remember is very likely what you will ignore in an exam, make the patches, walking in the exam class with confidence.
To solve anything require scientific methods to guide. Not everything in our life is important, it is the same as in terms of review. I hope everyone can plan our time well, give our dedication a rational assessment, you shouldn’t be the only one who is moved by your own efforts. When you are pursuing higher excellence, success will arrive without any prediction. I wish everybody can play to the level fully in the final, enjoy every journey, love life every day.
A: thank Yu Yan for her wonderful speech. One can’t reach a thousand miles without accumulating each paces, big rivers won’t form without the gathering of brooklets and streams. Knowing those strategic policies and learning methods, next will be our actions and how we put them into practice.
B: only by persistence, can we get good results. Dear school friends, please carry forward the core values of Socialism, take reform and innovation as the foundation, try our best to build harmonious exam classrooms and become top students.
A: at the same time, we heartedly wish everyone gain good results in the exams in the future. This is the end of today’s morning meeting. Thank you, everyone